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Napredne metode odstranjevanja in spremljanja onesnažil, ki so na prioritetnem seznamu Vodne direktive


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Oznaka in naziv projekta

L1-7544 - Napredne metode odstranjevanja in spremljanja onesnažil, ki so na prioritetnem seznamu Vodne direktive
L1-7544 - Improved treatment and monitoring of Water Framework Directive priority pollutants

Logotipi ARRS in drugih financerjev

© Javna agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije

Projektna skupina

Vodja projekta: prof. dr. Ester Heath

Sodelujoče raziskovalne organizacije: Institut "Jožef Stefan" Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za strojništvo Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo, Institut za ekološki inženiring, d.o.o., Geološki zavod Slovenije, Nacionalni inštitut za biologijo, Mednarodna podiplomska šola Jožefa Stefana.

Sofinancerji: CČN Domžale-Kamnik d.o.o. IEI d.o.o. Komunala Novo mesto d.o.o.

Vsebinski opis projekta

Vsebinski opis projekta Nova onesnažila so snovi, ki so v okolju prisotne že dlje časa, njihova prisotnost in vpliv na okolje pa sta šele v zadnjem času deležna pozornosti. Njihov glavni vir v okolje predstavljajo komunalne in industrijske odpadne vode (WW), njihova prisotnost v okolju pa je pomembna predvsem zaradi možnih neželenih učinkov, ki jih predstavljajo za ljudi in druge ne-tarčne organizme. V EU predstavlja Vodna direktiva (WFD, 2000) pravno podlago za varstvo in obnovljivost voda. Leta 2001 je določila 33 prednostnih snovi, ki jih je potrebno nadzorovati v površinskih vodah in l. 2011 dodala še 15 snovi, ki jih bo potrebno na področju Evrope spremljati/nadzorovati, če bo za le-te dokazano zadostno tveganje za vodno okolje. Prvič so v WFD vključili tudi zdravilne učinkovine: protivnetno učinkovino diklofenak (DF) ter dva steroidna hormona 17β-estradiol (E2) in17α-etinilestradiol (EE2). Pričakujemo, da bodo tudi druga organska onesnažila, kot so npr. bisfenol A (BPA) in njegove zamenjave (BP) sledili tem primerom.

Glavni vir onesnaženja vodnega okolja z mikropolutanti predstavljajo iztoki čistilnih naprav. Pomanjkljivi nadzor ter nezadostna odstranitev teh spojin med konvencionalnimi postopki čiščenja prispevajo k nepoznavanju njihovega kroženja in učinkov v okolju. Za DF, E2 in EE2 so podatki o prisotnosti v površinskih in odpadnih vodah v literaturi sicer na voljo, vendar pa uporabljene analizne metode običajno ne dosegajo okoljskih standardov kakovosti (EQS) ter mej kvantifikacije (LOQ), ki jih zahteva WFD. Pregled literature tudi razkriva, da konvencionalne čistilne naprave (ČN), ki uspešno odstranjujejo trdne delce, organske snovi in hranila iz odpadne vode, niso učinkovite pri odstranjevanju ne-tarčnih spojin. Odstranjevanje DF s konvencionalnim biološkim čiščenjem je npr. slabo in nekonsistentno (okoli 30 %), medtem ko se E2 in EE2 odstranita v večji meri (75-90 %). Kljub omenjeni stopnji eliminacije v postopku čiščenja WW in upoštevanju razredčitve po vstopu v površinske vode, njihovi ostanki še vedno predstavljajo tveganje za vodne organizme in najverjetneje presegajo dovoljene povprečne letne koncentracije (WFD). Za nova onesnažila, kot so npr. BPA zamenjave, pa moramo šele razviti in validirati analizne metode.

V predlaganem projektu bomo razvili učinkovit način spremljanja povprečnih koncentracij treh prednostnih snovi in izbranih bisfenolov v vodnem okolju (pod ng/L). Analizno metodo za določanje izbranih spojin v koncentracijah pod ng/L bomo razvili v kombinaciji s tradicionalnim in sodobnim načinom vzorčenja, e.g. pasivnim vzorčenjem (PS), namenjenem vzorčenju polarnih in hidrofobnih organskih snovi. Metodi bosta omogočili določanje povprečnih koncentracij izbranih učinkovin v daljšem časovnem obdobju, kot zahteva WFD. Optimizirano analizno metodo bomo uporabili za analizo površinskih in podzemnih vod, ki jih bomo vzorčili sistematsko tekom enega leta in zajeli vpliv sezonskih nihanj ter dopolnili obstoječo zbirko podatkov.

Drugi cilj predlaganega projekta je preučiti alternativne možnosti čiščenja odpadnih vod, s katerimi bi omejili oz. preprečili vstop ostankov organskih onesnažil v vodno okolje. Učinkovitost naprednih bioloških postopkov čiščenja WW, fotokatalize in kavitacije, smo v našem laboratoriju že preučevali in postopki so se izkazali kot učinkoviti. V predlagani projektni nalogi bomo omenjene laboratorijske postopke optimizirali in nadgradili do pilotne in »realne« velikosti ter preučili možne povezave s konvencionalnimi ČN. Uspešnost čiščenja bomo ocenili na osnovi odstranitve starševskih spojin, tvorbe stabilnih toksičnih transformacijskih produktov ter spremembo v toksičnosti med iztoki in vtoki. Projekt ima številne elemente izvirnosti, kot npr. pasivno vzorčenje za WFD, kavitacija/UV/TiO2 ter sekvenčna aplikacija tehnoloških postopkov. Aplikativnost projektne naloge se kaže v sofinanciranju 3 in sodelovanju 5 končnih uporabnikov ter 3 priznanih mednarodnih raziskovalnih institucij. Partnerji imamo potrebno opremo in odlične reference ter smo uspešno izpeljali številne projekte, kar je odlična osnova za predlagano raziskavo.

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Directive 2013/39/EU

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